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History[ edit ] Horticulture and the integration of nature into our civilization has been a major part in the establishment of our cities. When nomadic civilizations began settling down, their major trading centers were the market gardens and farms.
Urban horticulture rapidly progressed with the birth of cities and the increase in experimentation and exchange of ideas. These insights led to the field being dispersed to farmers in the hinterlands.
Therefore, horticulture was a regular part of everyday life in the city. After the nineteenth century, Horticulture was then selectively restored in some urban spaces as a response to the unhealthy conditions of factory neighborhoods and cities began seeing the development of parks.
Most of the economically stable population moved out of the cities into the suburbs, leaving only slums and ghettos at the city centers.
However, there were a few exceptions of garden projects initiated by public housing authorities in the s and s for the purpose of beautification and tenant pride.
Inevitably the disinvestment of major city centers, specifically in America resulted in the drastic increase of vacant lots. Existing buildings became uninhabitable, houses were abandoned and even productive industrial land became vacant.
In fact other movements at that time such as the peace, environmental, women's, civil rightsand " back-to-the-city " movements of the s and s and the environmental justice movement of the s and s saw opportunity in these vacant lands as a way of Urban horticulture article communities through school and community gardens, farmers' markets, and urban agriculture.
It is not the concept but the purposes that are new. The main goals of this movement include cleaning up neighborhoods, pushing out drug dealing that occurs at empty lots, growing and preserving food for consumption, restoring nature to industrial areas, and bringing the farming traditions to urban cities.
Most urban gardens are created on vacant land that vary in size and are generally gardened as individual plots by community members. Such areas can support social, cultural, and artistic events and contribute to the rebuilding of local community spirit. The modern community garden movement is initiated by neighborhoods along with the support of the governments and non-profit organizations.
Some gardens are linked to public housing projects, schools through garden-based learning programs, churches and social agencies and some even employ those who are incarcerated.
Community gardens which are now a large part of the urban horticulture movement are different from the earlier periods of grand park development in that the latter only served to free the people from the industrialism.
In addition a community garden is more beneficial and engaging than a mere lawn or park and serves as a valuable access to nature where wilderness is unavailable. This movement helped create and sustain relationships between city dwellers and the soil and contributed to a different kind of urban environmentalism that did not have any characteristics of reform charity.
The American Community Gardening Association ACGA has estimations that show that municipal governments and non-profit organizations operate gardening programs in about cities and towns, although the staff of this organization admits that this number could in reality be twice as large.
In survey, the National Gardening Association found that 6. Today urban horticulture has several components that include more than just community gardens, such as market gardens, small farms and farmers' markets and is an important aspect of community development.
Another result of urban horticulture is the food security movement where locally grown food is given precedence through several projects and programs, thus providing low-cost and nutritious food.
Urban community gardens and the food security movement was a response to the problems of industrial agriculture and to solve its related problems of price inflation, lack of supermarkets, food scarcity, etc.
Benefits[ edit ] Horticulture by itself is a practical and applied science, which means it can have a significance in our everyday lives.
As community gardens cannot actually compete with market-based land uses, it is essential to find other ways to understand their various benefits such as their contribution to social, human, and financial well-being. Frederick Law Olmstedthe designer of New York City's Central Park observed that the trees, meadows, ponds and wildlife tranquilize the stresses of city life.
Trees, grass, and flower gardens, due to their presence as well as visibility, increase people's life satisfaction by reducing fatigue and irritation and restoring a sense of calm.The scope of submission includes all aspects of sustainability (economic, environmental, and social) in horticulture, as well as the efficiency of resources, input, and outputs.
Work related to reducing, reusing, recycling, and recovering materials in the horticultural sector are welcome.
A companion food security movement has promoted urban-rural linkages, urban agriculture, and farmers’ markets. Studies have shown that community gardens and nearby green space in cities are an important response to needs for nutritious and affordable food, psychological and physiological health, social cohesion, crime prevention, recreation.
Nina Bassuk obtained her PhD in Horticulture from the University of London, UK and is currently a professor and program leader of the Urban Horticulture Institute at Cornell University. She also sits on the board of the New York State Urban Forestry Council.
This is why the CA Center for Urban Horticulture at UC Davis, UCANR and Ewing Irrigation created a unique watering device called the Tree Ring Irrigation Contraption (TRIC). The TRIC is not an item for sale, but rather a kit that homeowners can put together themselves.
The total cost is about $ to make a TRIC for one tree. Modifications in the urban horticulture in the context of social, economic and cultural changes 13 TOMICZEK,C. The phytomedical situation of plants under urban conditions 21 REYMANN,D. The economic links of urban horticulture 23 PREISLER-HOLL,L.
Developing urban agriculture education and community garden projects has become a priority for University of Illinois Extension in addressing food deserts.
If you have never heard of a food desert.