Socrates and Glaucon are invited to Polemarchus' house by Polemarchus and Adeimantus.
To this, Socrates answers that justice is in the most beautiful class of all: Justice 7 To this, Glaucon answers that most people think otherwise and would classify The republic book 1 notes with "the arduous things that ought to be shunned for themselves but pursued for profit and a reputation based on appearance.
He wants to know what justice and injustice are, and what power they each have by themselves in the soul. Thus, he proposes to first present the popular view of the nature and origin of justice, then show that all who practice it do so unwillingly, and do so because they think of it as a necessity and not a good.
Finally, he says that he will argue that this attitude is reasonable since people generally think that the unjust life is better than the just life. He says he does not believe in these views; the reason he is doing this is because he would like to hear justice defended and believes that Socrates can do that better than anybody else.
With this in mind, he begins by saying that people believe that injustice is good to inflict but bad to suffer. Through experience, people determine that the negative effects of suffering it are greater than the positive effects of inflicting it, and therefore they make a pact to stop inflicting or suffering it.
As a result, they made laws and called whatever the laws dictated justice. This, he believes, is the essence and origin of justice, which ended up being a midway or compromise, and is thus not cherished as a good but honored out of inability to do wrong.
The result is that a real unjust man would never make a pact with anyone because he wouldn't be able to trust him or her.
He then continues, intending to prove that people are only just because they have to be. To do this, he tells the story of a shepherd who once served a king.
One day, when an earthquake occurred, a chasm was opened where he was herding sheep, and he went into it and found a bronze horse with windows in it. He looked in and found the body of a man, wearing a golden ring. He took the ring and left. Later, when he was in a meeting with fellow shepherds, he happened to turn the setting of the ring toward him.
Suddenly, he became invisible, and the others started to speak of him as if he wasn't there. After experimenting further, he came to the realization that the ring could make him invisible at will.
Thus, he used it to become messenger to the king, seduce the queen, murder the king, and then take the throne.
Glaucon says that should there be two rings like this, one given to a just man and one to an unjust man, the just man would not have the will to resist the opportunities, and thus, nobody is willingly just.
Furthermore, he says that "justice is practiced only under compulsion, as someone else's good - not our own. Justice 8 This shows that everyone really believes that injustice pays better than justice. After this, Glaucon compares the life of a perfectly just man to that of a perfectly unjust man.
He again comes to the conclusion that "the unjust man enjoys life better than the just" Book 2, pg. The conversation then moves on to a discussion that the whole hypothesis is based on the rewards of appearance and a good reputation, whereas the gods reward those who are truly just and punish those who are unjust.
However, it is generally believed that the gods often grant misfortune and evil lives to good men while evil men are happy and successful.Notes on Plato ’s Republic John Protevi / Department of French Studies / Louisiana State University / [email protected] Book 1 previews the rest of the Republic.
In terms of mythos, Socrates has descended into Hades to do battle for justice. The Republic study guide contains a biography of Plato, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Chapter Summary for Plato's The Republic, book 1 summary. Find a summary of this and each chapter of The Republic! Chapter Summary for Plato's The Republic, book 1 summary.
Find a summary of this and each chapter of The Republic! Find Study Resources. Main Menu; by . However, the first book of the Republic, which shares many features with earlier dialogues, is thought to have originally been written as a separate work, and then the remaining books were conjoined to it, perhaps with modifications to the original of the first book.
Oct 07, · Thrasymarchus, Thug Notes, 8-Bit Philosophy, Wisecrack, Sparknotes, Video Sparknotes, Academy of Ideas, The School of . Socrates' brief conversation with Cephalus is only apparently innocuous; this exchange actually foreshadows several aspects of the just life and the establishment of the just state that will be attempted in the duration of the argument for the Republic.