Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest practitioners of the novel and helped popularize the genre in England. He is also a pioneer of economic journalism.
Early life[ edit ] Daniel Foe his original name was probably born in Fore Street in the parish of St. Giles CripplegateLondon. His birthdate and birthplace are uncertain, and sources offer dates from towith the summer or early autumn of considered the most likely.
In Defoe's early life, he experienced some of the most unusual occurrences in English history: His mother Annie had died by the time he was about ten.
Business career[ edit ] Defoe entered the world of business as a general merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, general woollen goods, and wine. His ambitions were great and he was able to buy a country estate and a ship as well as civets to make perfumethough he was rarely out of debt.
He was forced to declare bankruptcy in With his debts and political difficulties, the marriage may have been troubled, but it lasted The life and work of daniel defoe years and produced eight children.
Queen Mary and her husband William III were jointly crowned inand Defoe became one of William's close allies and a secret agent. His laments were loud and he always defended unfortunate debtors, but there is evidence that his financial dealings were not always honest. Byhe was back in England, now formally using the name "Defoe" and serving as a "commissioner of the glass duty", responsible for collecting taxes on bottles.
Inhe ran a tile and brick factory in what is now Tilbury in Essex and lived in the parish of Chadwell St Mary. Writing[ edit ] As many as titles have been ascribed to Defoe, ranging from satirical poems, political and religious pamphlets, and volumes.
Furbank and Owens argue for the much smaller number of published items in Critical Bibliography Pamphleteering and prison[ edit ] Daniel Defoe in the pilloryline engraving by James Charles Armytage after Eyre Crowe Defoe's first notable publication was An essay upon projectsa series of proposals for social and economic improvement, published in His most successful poem, The True-Born Englishmandefended the king against the perceived xenophobia of his enemies, satirising the English claim to racial purity.
InDefoe presented the Legion's Memorial to Robert Harleythen Speaker of the House of Commons - and his subsequent employer - while flanked by a guard of sixteen gentlemen of quality.
It demanded the release of the Kentish petitioners, who had asked Parliament to support the king in an imminent war against France. The death of William III in once again created a political upheaval, as the king was replaced by Queen Anne who immediately began her offensive against Nonconformists.
It was published anonymously, but the true authorship was quickly discovered and Defoe was arrested.
Defoe was found guilty after a trial at the Old Bailey in front of the notoriously sadistic judge Salathiel Lovell. The truth of this story is questioned by most scholars, although John Robert Moore later said that "no man in England but Defoe ever stood in the pillory and later rose to eminence among his fellow men".
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimerbrokered his release in exchange for Defoe's co-operation as an intelligence agent for the Tories. In exchange for such co-operation with the rival political side, Harley paid some of Defoe's outstanding debts, improving his financial situation considerably.
It caused severe damage to London and Bristoluprooted millions of trees, and killed more than 8, people, mostly at sea. The event became the subject of Defoe's The Stormwhich includes a collection of witness accounts of the tempest.
The Review ran three times a week without interruption until Defoe was amazed that a man as gifted as Harley left vital state papers lying in the open, and warned that he was almost inviting an unscrupulous clerk to commit treason; his warnings were fully justified by the William Gregg affair.
When Harley was ousted from the ministry inDefoe continued writing the Review to support Godolphinthen again to support Harley and the Tories in the Tory ministry of — The Tories fell from power with the death of Queen Annebut Defoe continued doing intelligence work for the Whig government, writing "Tory" pamphlets that undermined the Tory point of view.
Bargrave at Canterbury the 8th of September, Bargrave's encounter with her old friend Mrs. Veal after she had died.
It is clear from this piece and other writings that the political portion of Defoe's life was by no means his only focus. Anglo-Scottish Union of [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Title page from Daniel Defoe's: The History of the Union of Great Britain dated and printed in Edinburgh by the Heirs of Anderson In despair during his imprisonment for the seditious libel case, Defoe wrote to William Patersonthe London Scot and founder of the Bank of England and part instigator of the Darien schemewho was in the confidence of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimerleading minister and spymaster in the English Government.
Harley accepted Defoe's services and released him in He immediately published The Review, which appeared weekly, then three times a week, written mostly by himself. This was the main mouthpiece of the English Government promoting the Act of Union Daniel Defoe was the first of the great eighteenth-century English novelists.
He wrote more than five hundred books, pamphlets, articles, and poems. Little is known about the birth and early childhood of Daniel Defoe, as no baptism record exists for him. It is likely that he was born in London.
Novelist, pamphleteer and journalist, Daniel Defoe is considered, along with Richardson, the founder of the English leslutinsduphoenix.com was born in London in to a family of Noncomformists, also called 5/5(1).
Defoe is considered "the father of realism" because he wrote about people, gave them specific, concrete motivations, and explained how and why they pursued them. Daniel Defoe relates the tale of an English sailor marooned on a desert island for nearly three decades. An ordinary man struggling to survive in extraordinary circumstances, Robinson Crusoe wrestles with fate and the nature of God.
Daniel Defoe: Daniel Defoe, English novelist, pamphleteer, and journalist, author of Robinson Crusoe (–22) and Moll Flanders (). Defoe’s father, James Foe, was a hard-working and fairly prosperous tallow chandler (perhaps also, later, a butcher), of Flemish descent.
By his middle 30s, Daniel . Daniel Defoe ((?)- April ) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe..
Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest practitioners of the novel and helped popularize the genre in England.