Those pigeons spent the pivotal hours of their lives in boxes, obsessively pecking small pieces of Plexiglas. Skinner trained his birds to earn food by tapping the Plexiglas. In some scenarios, the pigeons got food every time they pecked.
The GPL was not created in a vacuum. Rather, it was created to embody and defend a set of principles that were set forth at the founding of the GNU Project and the Free Software Foundation FSF — the preeminent organization that upholds, defends and promotes the philosophy of software freedom.
A prerequisite for understanding both of the popular versions of the GPL GPLv2 and GPLv3 and their terms and conditions is a basic understanding of the principles behind them. The GPL family of licenses are unlike nearly all other software licenses in that they are designed to defend and uphold these principles.
This section presents an abbreviated version that will focus on the parts that are most pertinent to the GPL. A particular user has software freedom with respect to a particular program if that user has the following freedoms: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.
The freedom to study how the program works, and modify it The freedom to redistribute copies. The freedom to distribute copies of modified versions to others. Specifically, user access to the source code of a program is a prerequisite to make use of the freedom to modify. However, the important issue is what freedoms are granted in the license that applies to that source code.
Software freedom is only complete when no restrictions are imposed on how these freedoms are exercised. Specifically, users and programmers can exercise these freedoms noncommercially or commercially.
|Home | College of Computing||Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light.|
|Home | Turnitin||Conclusion Introduction There are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because the losses are often difficult to calculate. Nevertheless, there is a consensus among both law enforcement personnel and computer scientists who specialize in security that both the number of computer crime incidents and the sophistication of computer criminals is increasing rapidly.|
|Roger Clarke's 'Asimov's Laws of Robotics'||For large- scale applications of information technology, governments have been called upon to apply procedures like those commonly used in major industrial and social projects. Thus, commitment might have to be deferred pending dissemination and public discussion of independent environmental or social impact statements.|
|Copyright 2002 by Ronald B. Standler||Notes Abstract This essay surveys the development and current state of electronic literature, from the popularity of hypertext fiction in the 's to the present, focusing primarily on hypertext fiction, network fiction, interactive fiction, locative narratives, installation pieces, "codework," generative art and the Flash poem.|
Licenses that grant these freedoms for noncommercial activities but prohibit them for commercial activities are considered non-free. The FSF published a useful explanation of various types of software and how they relate to one another. When one considers using, modifying or redistributing a software package that purports to be Open Source or Free Software, one must verify that the license grants software freedom.
The remainder of this section considers each of each component of software freedom in detail.
Perhaps, for example, the user has discovered an innovative use for a particular program, one that the programmer never could have predicted.
Such a use must not be restricted. It was once rare that this freedom was restricted by even proprietary software; but such is quite common today. Such restrictions of any kind are an unacceptable restriction on software freedom.
Access to the source code and related build and installation scripts are an essential part of this freedom. Without the source code, and the ability to build and install the binary applications from that source, users cannot effectively exercise this freedom.
Programmers directly benefit from this freedom. However, this freedom remains important to users who are not programmers. While it may seem counterintuitive at first, non-programmer users often exercise this freedom indirectly in both commercial and noncommercial settings.
For example, users often seek noncommercial help with the software on email lists and in user groups. To make use of such help they must either have the freedom to recruit programmers who might altruistically assist them to modify their software, or to at least follow rote instructions to make basic modifications themselves.
More commonly, users also exercise this freedom commercially.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Identify legislation and codes of practice that relate to handling information in social care settings. Data Protection Act – it gives rights to individuals in respect of personal data held about them.
You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to . Questions not just topics. While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise.
Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. “Free software” means software that respects users' freedom and community.
Roughly, it means that the users have the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the leslutinsduphoenix.com, “free software” is a matter of liberty, not price.