See Article History Alternative Title: In contemporary discourse, geopolitics has been widely employed as a loose synonym for international politics. Arguments about the political effects of geography —particularly climatetopographyarable land, and access to the sea—have appeared in Western political thought since at least the ancient Greek era and were prominent in the writings of philosophers as diverse as Aristotle — bc and Montesquieu — The best-known body of geopolitical writings is the extensive literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, much of which focused on the impact on world politics of the new technologies of the Industrial Revolution.
Timeline of the 20th century Map of the British Empire as of At its height, it was the largest empire in history. Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determinationofficial decolonization in the mid-century, and related regional conflicts.
The century saw a major shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology, and medicine.
The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization. Terms like ideologyworld wargenocideand nuclear war entered common usage. Scientific discoveries, such as the theory of relativity and quantum physicsprofoundly changed the foundational models of physical science, forcing scientists to realize that the universe was more complex than previously believed, and dashing the hopes or fears at the end of the 19th century that the last few details of scientific knowledge were about to be filled in.
It was a century that started with horsessimple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed railcruise shipsglobal commercial air travel and the Space Shuttle.
These developments were made possible by the exploitation of fossil fuel resources, which offered energy in an easily portable form, but also caused concern about pollution and long-term impact on the environment. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon.
Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people: Rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time.
However, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the imperial system. For the first time in human history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized and cooperative world.
The last time major powers clashed openly was inand since then, violence has seen an unprecedented decline. Summary[ edit ] Technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tankschemical weaponsand aircraft modified tactics and strategy.
After more than four years of trench warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead, the powers that had formed the Triple Entente FranceBritainand Russialater replaced by the United States and joined by Italy and Romania emerged victorious over the Central Powers GermanyAustria-Hungarythe Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.
In addition to annexing much of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from them, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression.
Ukraine, early days of the Nazi invasion. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into a technologically advanced industrial power. After some years of dramatic military success, Germany was defeated inhaving been invaded by the Soviet Union and Poland from the east and by the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Free France from the west.
The war ended with the dropping of two atomic bombs on Japan. Japan later became a western ally with an economy based on the manufacture of consumer goods and trade.- Immigration in 19th and 20th Century America During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many American nativist groups opposed free unrestricted immigration.
Although racism is a main reason, there were many others. The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, and ended on December 31, It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium.
It is distinct from the century known as the s which began on January . In late medieval England, it became customary to transcribe the coroner's view of the body onto paper, in the form of a written inquest. Over the following centuries, the documentation associated with the coroner and the forensic medical report gradually expanded, a paper trail of transcripts, depositions, and death certificates.
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|Keep Exploring Britannica||Francis Galton, who coined the term eugenics inperceived it as a moral philosophy to improve humanity by encouraging the ablest and healthiest people to have more children. The Galtonian ideal of eugenics is usually termed positive eugenics.|
|The late 19th and early 20th centuries||Francis Galton, who coined the term eugenics inperceived it as a moral philosophy to improve humanity by encouraging the ablest and healthiest people to have more children. The Galtonian ideal of eugenics is usually termed positive eugenics.|
Part of a series on: Forensic science. Pie is what happens when pastry meets filling Pie can be closed.
there a science analysis of the late 19th and 20th centuries was mounting evidence for a new Industrial Revolution in a science analysis of the late 19th and 20th centuries the late 19th and 20th centuries The Greatest Mathematicians of the Past ranked in approximate order .
The present article examines regional and zonal variations in the everyday diet of the Buryats living in the Cis-Baikal, Sayan, Selenga, and Aga regions in the late 19th and early 20th cent.
Objectives of the NMTA Social Science: Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries Chapter. The NMTA Social Science Exam is a standardized test that evaluates your breadth and depth of knowledge in. Semiotics: Semiotics, the study of signs and sign-using behavior. It was defined by one of its founders, the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, as the study of ‘the life of signs within society.’ The idea of semiotics as a mode for examining phenomena in different fields emerged only in . In this lesson, we explore the early women's rights movement and their rejection of traditional gender roles in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and Great Britain.
and gives a description of specific features of nutrition.